Bolivia’s FELCN seizes about 27 tons of ground coca leaves bound for Lebanon Clan Úsuga is one of Colombia’s largest narcotrafficking organizations and is involved in selling narcotics to the Sinaloa Cartel and Los Zetas, two Mexican transnational criminal organizations who traffic drugs through Central America and into the United States. Nearly 90 percent of the cocaine that reaches the United States comes through Mexico and Central America, according to the United Nations International Narcotics Control Board. “The Nariño Battalion will continue its territorial control operations to provide the residents of the 14 municipalities in southern Bolívar that are in the Battalion’s jurisdiction with the tranquility they have longed for,” said Army Lieutenant Colonel David Navia, the commander of battalion. The Second Brigade’s No. 4 Mechanized Infantry General Antonio Nariño Battalion and SIJIN officers captured the suspect in the Department of Bolívar, capping 15 days of Military operations in the area. The alleged Clan Úsuga leader is suspected of homicide, extortion, and theft in the municipalities of Achi, Montecristo, and Tiquisio in southern Bolívar. Ground coca leaves look very similar to yerba mate, and the suspects tried to take advantage of that by taking packages containing yerba mate leaves and stems, removing the contents, and then replacing them with ground coca leaves. Bolivia’s Special Counter Narcotics Force (FELCN) have seized about 27 tons of ground cocaine leaves camouflaged to look like packages of yerba mate tea leaves. Bolivia allows coca leaves to be grown legally in limited amounts. Coca leaves are used legally to make tea, medicine, and in certain foods, as well as in Andean religious rites. However, the only major purpose for shredded coca leaves is to prepare them to be turned into cocaine. FELCN agents seized the coca leaves on February 27 in a residence in the Department of Santa Cruz. Law enforcement officers also arrested two Bolivians in connection with the incident. They estimated the value of the seized leaves at $350,000; however, the leaves could have produced 100 kilograms of cocaine worth up to $90 million, according to Bolivian Government Minister Hugo Moldiz. “This generates better profits because it requires minimum capital and profitability is high,” Moldiz said. “This demonstrates the renovating methodologies used by drug traffickers to circumvent drug control forces.” The Second Brigade’s No. 4 Mechanized Infantry General Antonio Nariño Battalion and SIJIN officers captured the suspect in the Department of Bolívar, capping 15 days of Military operations in the area. The alleged Clan Úsuga leader is suspected of homicide, extortion, and theft in the municipalities of Achi, Montecristo, and Tiquisio in southern Bolívar. The Colombian National Army teamed with the Judicial Investigation Directorate’s Sectional Criminal Investigation unit (SIJIN) of the Police in the Department of Bolívar to capture the suspected leader of Clan Úsuga’s ‘Heroes of the South Bloc’, the Army reported on its website on March 2. The seizure is reportedly the first time Bolivian security forces have confiscated coca leaves that drug traffickers were going to ship abroad. Law enforcement authorities suspect that drug traffickers planned on sending the packages to Chile and then on to Lebanon. Bolivia’s Special Counter Narcotics Force (FELCN) have seized about 27 tons of ground cocaine leaves camouflaged to look like packages of yerba mate tea leaves. FELCN agents seized the coca leaves on February 27 in a residence in the Department of Santa Cruz. Law enforcement officers also arrested two Bolivians in connection with the incident. They estimated the value of the seized leaves at $350,000; however, the leaves could have produced 100 kilograms of cocaine worth up to $90 million, according to Bolivian Government Minister Hugo Moldiz. Bolivia’s FELCN seizes about 27 tons of ground coca leaves bound for Lebanon “This generates better profits because it requires minimum capital and profitability is high,” Moldiz said. “This demonstrates the renovating methodologies used by drug traffickers to circumvent drug control forces.” By Dialogo March 06, 2015 The Colombian National Army teamed with the Judicial Investigation Directorate’s Sectional Criminal Investigation unit (SIJIN) of the Police in the Department of Bolívar to capture the suspected leader of Clan Úsuga’s ‘Heroes of the South Bloc’, the Army reported on its website on March 2. “The Nariño Battalion will continue its territorial control operations to provide the residents of the 14 municipalities in southern Bolívar that are in the Battalion’s jurisdiction with the tranquility they have longed for,” said Army Lieutenant Colonel David Navia, the commander of battalion. The seizure is reportedly the first time Bolivian security forces have confiscated coca leaves that drug traffickers were going to ship abroad. Law enforcement authorities suspect that drug traffickers planned on sending the packages to Chile and then on to Lebanon. Clan Úsuga is one of Colombia’s largest narcotrafficking organizations and is involved in selling narcotics to the Sinaloa Cartel and Los Zetas, two Mexican transnational criminal organizations who traffic drugs through Central America and into the United States. Nearly 90 percent of the cocaine that reaches the United States comes through Mexico and Central America, according to the United Nations International Narcotics Control Board. Ground coca leaves look very similar to yerba mate, and the suspects tried to take advantage of that by taking packages containing yerba mate leaves and stems, removing the contents, and then replacing them with ground coca leaves. Bolivia allows coca leaves to be grown legally in limited amounts. Coca leaves are used legally to make tea, medicine, and in certain foods, as well as in Andean religious rites. However, the only major purpose for shredded coca leaves is to prepare them to be turned into cocaine.
Among them, of course, will be celebrities and current and former fighters. The rematch figures to provide plenty of excitement with the IBF, WBA (super) and WBO heavyweight titles on the line. There will be millions of viewers tuning in Saturday for the historic Andy Ruiz Jr. vs. Anthony Joshua rematch in Diriyah, Saudi Arabia. What time is Andy Ruiz Jr. vs. Anthony Joshua 2?Date: Saturday, Dec. 7Commercial broadcast time: 1 p.m. ETRuiz-Joshua 2 main event: 3:45 p.m. ET (approximate)Live stream: DAZNDAZN collected a total of 51 predictions for the fight, including Anthony Joshua, legendary actor and director Sylvester Stallone and boxing icon Sugar Ray Leonard. Among those polled, 22 people picked Ruiz, 22 people picked Joshua and seven were undecided.Check out the picks and predictions from notable fighters and celebrities for Ruiz vs. Joshua 2. HeavyweightsAnthony Joshua (former unified world heavyweight champion) — Anthony Joshua, KO 9/10 RoundDeontay Wilder (current WBC world heavyweight champion) — Andy Ruiz, victoryDominic Breazeale (contender and title challenger) — Anthony Joshua, TKO 10th RoundEfe Ajagba (undefeated prospect and contender) — Andy Ruiz, KO 6th RoundAdam Kownacki (undefeated contender) — Andy Ruiz, KO 9th RoundCharles Martin (contender and former IBF champion) — Andy Ruiz, KO 6th RoundLuis Ortiz (two-time heavyweight title challenger) — Anthony Joshua, Decision VictoryFrank Sanchez (undefeated prospect and contender) — Anthony Joshua, Decision VictoryGerald Washington (title challenger and contender) — Andy Ruiz, VictoryJoseph Parker (former WBO world heavyweight champion) — Anthony Joshua, VictoryMihai Nistor (current undefeated heavyweight) — UndecidedCurrent fightersClaressa Shields (undisputed female middleweight world champion) — Anthony Joshua, Late KOAmanda Serrano (seven-division world champion) — Andy Ruiz, Mid/Late TKO VictoryDemetrius Andrade (current WBA middleweight world champion) — UndecidedJaime Munguia (former super welterweight world champion and current contender) — Andy Ruiz, VictoryRoman Gonzalez (four-division world champion) — Andy Ruiz, KODmitry Bivol (current WBA light heavyweight world champion) — Anthony Joshua, KO 8th RoundDanny Roman (current IBF and WBA super bantamweight world champion) — UndecidedTevin Farmer (current IBF super featherweight world champion) — Anthony Joshua, KOCarl Frampton (former two-weight world champion) — Anthony Joshua, Decision VictoryOscar Valdez (former featherweight champion) — Andy Ruiz, KOAndy Lee (former middleweight world champion) — UndecidedLamont Roach, Jr. — Andy Ruiz, KORegis Prograis (former WBA super lightweight world champion) — Andy Ruiz, VictoryBlair Cobb (undefeated welterweight prospect) — Andy Ruiz, KO 9th RoundJessie Vargas (two-division world champion) — UndecidedLegendary fighters/boxing expertsBernard Hopkins (Boxing Hall of Famer) — Anthony Joshua, TKO/UDSugar Ray Leonard (Boxing Hall of Famer) — UndecidedJoe Cortez (Boxing Hall of Fame Referee) — Anthony Joshua, KO 5th RoundVictor Conte (sports nutritionist) — Andy Ruiz, KO 7th RoundAthletes/celebritiesSylvester Stallone (executive producer of DAZN’s “One Night” documentary and three-time Academy Award nominee) — Andy Ruiz, VictoryCristiano Ronaldo (current soccer superstar) — Andy Ruiz, VictoryMario Goetze (current soccer superstar) — Anthony Joshua, VictoryRosie Perez (television personality and actress) — Andy Ruiz, VictoryKSI (YouTube star and undefeated professional boxer) — Anthony Joshua, DecisionJake Paul (YouTube star) — Andy Ruiz, KO 9th RoundMetta World Peace (former NBA player) — UndecidedMaverick Carter (CEO of UNINTERRUPTED) — Anthony Joshua, Decision VictorySway Calloway (host of SiriusXM’s “Sway in the Morning”) — Andy Ruiz, VictoryCharlamagne tha God (host of Power 105.1’s “The Breakfast Club”) — Andy Ruiz, VictoryBellator MMAScott Coker (Bellator President) — Andy Ruiz, TKO 6th RoundIlima-Lei Macfarlane (Bellator Flyweight Champion) — Andy Ruiz, KO 8th RoundJay Glazer (Bellator Commentator) — Anthony Joshua, KO 3rd RoundRoyce Gracie (Bellator Ambassador & MMA Legend) — Anthony Joshua, VictoryDouglas Lima (Bellator Welterweight Champion) — Anthony Joshua, VictoryRyan Bader (Bellator Heavyweight & Light Heavyweight Champion) — Andy Ruiz, Victory“Big” John McCarthy (Bellator Analyst) — Andy Ruiz, VictoryDAZN talentLauren Gardner (boxing reporter and ChangeUp host) — Anthony Joshua, VictoryTodd Grisham (DAZN blow-by-blow announcer) — Anthony Joshua, Decision VictoryClaudia Trejos (boxing reporter) — Anthony Joshua, Unanimous DecisionAdnan Virk (Host of Boxing and ChangeUp) — Anthony Joshua, TKO 10th Round
The San Jose Sharks announced a plan Thursday to aid and honor the victims and first responders of last month’s Gilroy Garlic Festival shooting, which left three victims dead and 12 others injured.The team will donate $10,000 to the Silicon Valley Community Foundation, which has organized the Gilroy Garlic Festival Victims Relief Fund.A portion of the Sept. 22 Sharks Fan Fest proceeds will also go to the fund, and the team also said it will honor the shooting’s first responders during …
An artist’s impression of Menlyn Maine’sresidential area. (Image: Menlyn Maine)Janine ErasmusTwo new urban development sites in Gauteng will lead the way for the rest of the world in green living.The Menlyn Maine and Zonk’izizwe multi-purpose developments will provide their residents with the ultimate in convenience and style, while at the same time showcasing cutting-edge green building technology.Both developments are part of a world-wide project on sustainable urban growth, initiated by the Clinton Climate Initiative, itself a project of the William J. Clinton Foundation. Featuring 16 initial projects in 10 countries, the programme runs with the support of the US Green Building Council and aims to demonstrate that climate-positive practices can be achieved even with large-scale real estate developments.The ultimate aim is to achieve a zero carbon footprint by offsetting emissions with the use of clean energy sources, waste and water management, and specialised lighting and transport systems. These developments will set an economic and environmental example for cities around the world to follow.According to the Clinton initiative, the number of people living in cities is expected to grow to 70% of the world population by 2050. The time is right to implement strategies that minimise the impact of this rapid growth on the environment.The two South African projects join others in Australia, Brazil, Canada, India, Panama, South Korea, Sweden, the UK and the US. Once they are all complete, says the Clinton Climate Initiative, nearly 1-million people will live and work in so-called climate positive communities. More projects are then expected to follow.Both are situated close to the Gautrain rapid rail link, which will link Pretoria, Johannesburg and OR Tambo International Airport. The Gautrain is in an advanced stage of construction, with all the underground drilling complete and train units already operational at the test centre in Midrand.Green livingLocated in Pretoria’s eastern suburbs, Menlyn Maine will offer residential, work, shopping and entertainment facilities. The 135 000m2 development, which is already under construction, is close to main roads and freeways, and is within walking distance of Menlyn Park shopping centre, one of the biggest in the country.Compliance with the Green Star rating system of South Africa’s Green Building Council is a priority and developers are pulling out all the stops. The Green Star rating is a device used by Green Building Council to rate and reward good environmental practice in the property sector.Based on the system devised by the Australian Green Building Council, it provides property developers with an independent assessment of the greenness of their buildings. The rating system is divided into various functional categories such as retail, office, and residential, among others. Four-, five- and six-star ratings are awarded to deserving buildings.The Green Building Council describes a green building as one that is “energy efficient, resource efficient and environmentally responsible, incorporating design, construction and operational practices that significantly reduce or eliminate its negative impact on the environment and its occupants”.The council promotes green building as a way of using resources efficiently while mitigating the effect on climate change and creating a healthier environment for people to live and work in.Menlyn Maine’s contribution to green living will take the form of a number of energy- and water-efficient systems, designed to competently meet residents’ needs while achieving substantial cost savings. These include building automation systems, high efficiency lighting, centralised geysers, water-efficient irrigation systems and stormwater harvesting.Carbon emission reduction will also be achieved through the use of locally produced or recycled products during building, wherever possible. Examples of building materials that include recycled content are acoustic panel ceilings, floor tiles and carpets, pre-cast concrete systems, and structural steel.State-of-the-art yet inconspicuous security systems, managed from a central security point, will be installed throughout. An internal fibre-optic cable network will connect all buildings. Responsible landscaping is another important factor, with some 5 700m2 of indigenous planting in the plans.Menlyn Maine is expected to be complete within 10 years, but possibly as early as five. The first set of commercial buildings is due for completion in late 2010. All parks, roads and services will be in place by 2011.Carbon reductionThe US$2-billion (R15-billion) Zonk’izizwe (isiZulu, meaning “all nations”) is situated in Midrand between that area’s Grand Central Airport and the exhibition and conference centre Gallagher Estate. The name refers to South Africa’s diverse mix of cultures.It is intended to be an all-new town centre between Johannesburg and Pretoria and is designed to make maximum advantage of the Gautrain, as it encompasses the rapid rail link’s Midrand station.The US-based architectural and planning company Development Design Group, vastly experienced in similar large-scale projects around the world, is responsible for Zonk’izizwe’s design. Old Mutual Property Investments is the developer in South Africa.Old Mutual bought the land back in 1987 and first announced its vision for the project a number of years ago. The recent Gautrain construction has given the company the impetus to begin development in earnest.Zonk’izizwe sits on 220 hectares and will feature every possible convenience, including a hotel, outdoor shopping, a 15 000-car parkade, major retail outlets, offices, and homes. For entertainment, residents can look forward to a cinema multiplex, themed adventure rides, nightlife, parks, museums and an aquarium.The development aims to cut down on carbon emissions by reducing the use of cars. Instead, residents will be within walking distance of basic services, or they may prefer to use public transport or cycle paths.Other climate-friendly strategies include the installation of bio-water recycling and purification systems, and solar power generation.Zonk’izizwe will be built in phases and will take between 10 and 15 years to complete. The first phase, costing around $125-million (R1-billion), will see the construction of essential infrastructure such as roads, water, power, and sewerage.Useful linksMenyln MaineGreen Building CouncilWilliam J. Clinton FoundationUS Green Building Council
Prevented planting, 2019 Market Facilitation Program payments, disaster assistance, and price dynamics
Share Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest By Gary Schnitkey, Krista Swanson, Ryan Batts and Jonathan Coppess with the University of Illinois Department of Agricultural and Consumer Economics University of Illinois and Carl Zulauf, with the Ohio State University Department of Agricultural, Environmental and Development EconomicsWe stand at a point of extreme price and policy uncertainty. In the Midwest, corn planting is historically late and many acres are or soon will be eligible for prevented planting payments on corn crop insurance policies. On many farms, corn prices have not increased enough to cause net returns from planting corn to exceed net returns from prevented planting. However, the U.S. Department of Agriculture announced a 2019 Market Facilitation Program (MFP) and has currently indicated that payments will be tied to 2019 planted acres. The 2019 MFP could provide incentives to plant crops and not take prevented planting payments. Moreover, this program could bring a little used option into play this year: take 35% of the corn prevented planting payment and plant soybeans after the late planting period for corn. Adding confusion to this situation is a disaster assistance program that, has passed Congress but is not yet signed by President Donald Trump. 2019 Market Facilitation Program paymentsIn a May 23rd press release, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) outlined the 2019 Market Facilitation Program (MFP). This program is projected to provide $14.5 billion in direct payments to farmers of specific commodities, $4.9 billion more than the $9.6 billion spent on the 2018 MFP. Important details of this program are:Payments will be based on 2019 planted acres to MFP-covered crops. USDA has initially stated that payments will not be received on prevented planting acres but the final details have yet to be released. By itself, this provision provides incentives to plant crops and not take prevented planting payments.MFP-covered crops in 2019 include corn, soybeans, wheat, alfalfa hay, barley, canola, crambe, dry peas, extra-long staple cotton, flaxseed, lentils, long grain and medium grain rice, mustard seed, dried beans, oats, peanuts, rapeseed, safflower, sesame seed, small and large chickpeas, sorghum, sunflower seed, temperate japonica rice, and upland cotton.There will be a single payment rate for a county. That per acre payment rate will be based on total plantings of the MFP-covered crops on the individual farm. Acres planted to an individual crop will not matter other than its contribution to total planted MFP crops on the farm. As an example, suppose that MFP rate for a county is $50 per acre. A farm with 60 acres in corn and 40 acres in soybeans will have 100 MFP acres and receive $5,000. The farm will also receive $5,000 if 40 acres are corn and 60 acres are soybeans.Payments acres in 2019 cannot exceed the payment acres on the farm for the 2018 MFP. This restriction is designed to prevent more acres moving into covered crops, particularly from grasslands or lands typically not farmed. It will most likely be made on a Farm Service Agency (FSA) farm basis. A farm that had 80 MFP-acres in 2018 cannot receive payments on more than 80 acres in 2019Payments will be made in three tranches, the first in late July/early August after the July 15 planting reporting date with the Farm Service Agency (FSA), November, and early January. Whether or not the November and early January payments are made will depend on USDA determination on the need for these payments.Many important questions remain to be answered regarding 2019 MFP payments; the answers to these questions could affect 2019 planting decisions. The most important question is: What are the 2019 per acre payment rates? The Farm Service Agency (FSA) likely will not release payment rates until after prevent planting decisions have been made.In addition, questions exist on payment limits. There was a $125,000 per person payment limit on 2018 program. Secretary Purdue indicated that this limit would be structured differently in 2019. Ad hoc disaster assistance in the supplemental appropriations billDisaster assistance provisions are contained in a supplemental appropriations bill currently approved by Congress. Among other things, the bill will:Increase the prevent payment factor on crop insurance up to 90% at the discretion of the Secretary. Currently, prevented payment factors are 55% for corn and 60% for soybeans.Use the higher of the projected and harvest price in determining prevented planting claims.
Editor’s note: This is one in a series of blogs detailing the construction of a net-zero energy house in Point Roberts, Washington, by an owner-builder with relatively little building experience. A list of Matt Bath’s GBA articles can be found at the bottom of this page. You’ll find Matt Bath’s full blog, Saving Sustainably, here. If you want to follow project costs, you can keep an eye on a budget worksheet here. My net-zero home will be all-electric, in hopes that someday I can move from net-zero to completely self-sustaining and off-grid as technology improves. Battery prices are dropping rapidly and in my opinion it is only a matter of time before the electrical grid becomes a thing of the past. (If you aren’t a believer, check out this presentation by Tony Seba, a Stanford professor who has spent his life researching the advancement of technology.)RELATED ARTICLESService Cavities for Wiring and PlumbingAn Easy Way to Seal Electrical BoxesLiving Without ElectricityThe True Cost of Electricity Fully electric houses require larger service entrance panels that contain space for more circuits than those of the average fossil-fuel house. This is absolutely not to be confused with a higher power rated service entrance panel. If you build your net-zero home properly and buy the right appliances, you won’t use any more power than the average home that uses electricity and fossil fuels. I started with a list of all the circuits I would have, as well as the breaker and wire gauge sizes, all of which I will explain shortly. [Editor’s note: Wiring is potentially hazardous. Check with your local building office on whether a licensed electrician is required to do the work. Know your local codes, and never proceed when you are in doubt.] The modern electrical service uses two nominal 120-volt “phases” of electricity that cancel each other out (nominal meaning they won’t actually be exactly 120 and will vary). This allows you to power circuits with either 120 or 240 nominal voltage. Some circuits that use a lot of power take up two spaces in the main panel. These are 240-volt circuits. The first step in installing the electrical work is the same as with almost every step in the building process. You’ve got to have a detailed plan. That means deciding where all your receptacles, lighting fixtures, smoke alarms, and appliances will go, and what types of appliances you will have. Start with a plan that shows the location of every receptacle, light and appliance in the house. Locating receptacles and light fixtures Receptacles must be located on every wall that is greater than 2 feet long and be placed no greater than 12 feet away from another receptacle along the same wall or an adjoining wall. On kitchen countertops, this distance is reduced to 4 feet. Additional outlets may be desired for areas with computer equipment or television screens. For example, I will be using Japanese-style toilets so I needed to install receptacles behind the toilet locations. The toilets will help me save sustainably by eliminating toilet paper waste, which in turn will help my septic system remain in good condition. Receptacles can be placed at any height below 66 inches. I used an 18-inch mark on a piece of scrap wood to ensure that all of my receptacles were the same height. I used another scrap piece of wood to ensure that the boxes were spaced 1/2 inch out from the stud so that they will be flush with the drywall. Every room must have an operable light fixture. Three-way light switches must be installed in stairways so the light fixture can be operated from either the top to the bottom of the staircase. More than one light fixture per room probably will be desired. Recessed lighting is attractive but not advisable when placed under an unconditioned space due to the difficulty in air sealing them. Surface-mounted LED lights are a newer technology that is hardly distinguishable from recessed lighting but much easier to air seal. Every bedroom must have a smoke alarm, and an additional smoke alarm must be installed near the sleeping areas on each floor of the house. Smoke alarms must be wired in series together so that if one of them detects smoke they will all go off. Be sure to check with your local electric utility to see if rebates are offered and save sustainably by balancing the cost of the appliance with the yearly operating cost. Check the specifications for each appliance and note the breaker size (also known as overcurrent protection) and voltage required. Appliances that say 120/240 need both 120 volts and 240 volts. Additional wiring may be desired for doorbell, internet, speakers, and security. You may also want to provide additional circuits for the future. For example, I don’t currently own an electric car but I am fairly certain I will in the future so I included wiring for a charger. Running cable for receptacles and appliances With all of the gang boxes nailed into place, it was time to run the cables from the main panel to each outlet. Bear in mind that what we refer to in English as an electrical outlet is known as a “receptacle” in the electrical code. When I refer to an outlet as an electrician, I am talking about the location where electricity will be utilized. This could be a receptacle, but it also could be a light or an appliance. The wires will carry the electrical current from the panel to the outlets. Most electricians use use NM-B type wire, commonly known by its trademark name, Romex. Standard Romex contains two (one white and one black) or three (white, red, and black) insulated conductors, and a paper-wrapped copper ground wire, all bundled together and wrapped in its own paper and insulation. The paper might seem dangerous, but it is treated and it allows the wires inside to shift and slide without as much friction, making installation much easier. For any appliance you wish to power, you first need to decide whether to use Romex with two conductors or three. Appliances that require 120 or 240 volts only need two conductors. Appliances that say 120/240 require both voltages and you must run a three conductor cable to power them. You also use three-conductor wire for smoke alarms and for lights that are controlled by multiple switches. The next thing you need to decide is what size conductors you need to use. The more current a given appliance needs, the bigger the wire should be to ensure the voltage doesn’t drop significantly by the time it reaches the appliance, and the wire doesn’t heat up so much to melt the insulation and cause a fire. Choose the correct conductor size by determining how much current the circuit will carry. A 15-amp circuit, for example, takes 14-gauge wire. Properly sizing conductors can be quite involved, but doesn’t need to be when dealing with residential construction under normal circumstances. It can usually be simplified to just using the table above found in the NEC (National Electrical Code), unless the appliance is going to be running continuously. As you can see, from the chart below, I listed all of the wire sizes for each circuit. In this way, I was able to plan which route each wire would take from the main panel to the outlet it is powering. When several wires take the same route, that is referred to as a raceway. It helps to plan out raceways in advance so you can drill one big hole that is just the right size for the wires instead of a bunch of smaller holes for each individual wire. This list shows the wire gauge for each circuit as well as the capacity of each circuit breaker. It is easier to start by running the larger wires first, and then run the smaller wires around them. For example, the first wire I ran was one of the bigger ones, for my induction range. The manufacturer states it requires a 40-amp circuit, with access to both 120 and 240 volts, so using the table above, the circuit requires 8-3 cable. This reel made running cable a little easier. Circuits for appliances like the range are very simple, and usually consist of just a single cable. Once I had wired all of the appliances, I started on the circuits for the receptacles. Each of these circuits contains multiple receptacles, so you run a wire to the first gang box, and then another wire from the first box to the second box, and so on. Building codes require some receptacle circuits to be on their own, such as those in bathrooms and the garages. Kitchens must have two separate receptacle circuits, although one can be combined with the dining room as I did. This is to ensure that several high powered items like blenders, hair dryers, power tools, etc. can be used at the same time without using up all the available current in the circuit. Don’t overstuff the boxes Bedrooms, on the other hand, can be wired on the same circuit since those receptacles are usually only used for low-power items like phone chargers, lamps, and computers. In these cases, thorough planning is required so you don’t run too many wires into a gang boxes. Boxes allow only a certain volume of wires and devices to fill them. Box- fill calculations sound difficult at first, but it’s pretty easy once you get the hang of it. Each box is labeled to show its volume, and using a table in the NEC you can quickly see how many conductors of a certain wire size are allowed. The gang boxes that I used were labeled so I knew exactly how many conductors they could accommodate. Most gang boxes have a light or a switch or a receptacle in them, so that counts for an additional two conductors. You have to count an extra conductor to account for all the ground wires bundled together. This all adds up. For example, in the gang box pictured below, there are three 14-gauge cables that each contain two conductors, one cable that contains three conductors, and two switches. So you have to add nine for the conductors, four for the switches, and one for the ground wires, for a total of 14. This box must be sized for at least fourteen 14-gauge conductors. This box had to be sized correctly for the number of conductors it would house. Wiring the lighting circuits Lighting circuits are by far the hardest ones to wire. LEDs use very little power, so I only used two lighting circuits for the entire house. One powers the first-story lighting, and the other takes care of the second story. There are multiple ways to wire lights, and I will go over several of them, but the important thing to keep in mind is that every light needs power from the panel, and every light needs to be wired to a switch. Sometimes it is easier to bring power to the switch, and then run a wire from the switch to the light. In this instance, the black wires go through the switch and the white, neutral wires are joined together in the box. Alternatively, the power can be brought first to the light, and then to the switch. This gets just a little bit more complicated due to the wire coloring. What about the ground wires? You must be wondering, if electricity doesn’t pass through those wires, why are they even there? This is a great question. Ground wires are only used in emergencies, and are part of the grounding system of the house to protect people from being shocked. Let’s say that somehow the “hot” wire comes loose or becomes corroded over time and comes into contact with part of the light fixture. That fixture is now electrically charged so if you touch it, you could get electrocuted. Fortunately, the ground wire also is connected to the light fixture, and connected to the ground, so the current will flow through the ground wire to the ground. Building codes require the path of the grounding wires to encounter very little resistance; this low resistance will cause the current to spike and trip the breaker, cutting power off to the circuit. You will need to use three-conductor cable when you connect a light to multiple switches. Three-way lights are required by building code over a stairway so you can operate the same light from either the top or the bottom of the stair. The third conductor is wired between the two switches so that the light can be powered through one conductor if both switches are up, or through the other conductor if both switches are down. If one switch is up and the other is down the circuit is disconnected and the light will not be lit. In the master bedroom, the main light can be operated via a switch at the door, or via switches at either side of the bed. In effect, three different switches are capable of operating the same light! This is called a 4-way switch. For light fixtures, you can use wall boxes for sconces or octagonal junction boxes for hanging fixtures. There are reinforced boxes you can use that are capable of handling heavy chandeliers as well. Just as with the gang boxes, it is important to do box-fill calculations to ensure that the box you are using has enough room for the number of conductors you wish to pass through it. Securing wire and making up boxes After all of the cables have been run between the main panel and the outlets, all the cables must be secured to the framing. The cable must be attached within 6 inches of an outlet and at least every 54 inches until they reach the main panel. There are many products you can buy to secure the cable properly, but I went with the cheapest one and just used electrical staples. These allow you to staple two 2-conductor cables wires or one 3-conductor cable, and are very easily driven into the framing with a hammer. You must take care not to hammer them in so hard that they break the insulation on the wire. On long raceways, it is important to separate the wires when possible to prevent them from overheating. In addition, wires can’t be stapled closer than 1 1/4 inch from the face of the framing. If cable goes through a hole that is closer than that, a metal plate must be attached to the framing to protect the cable from a nail or screw. Once the wires are secured, it is time to make up the boxes. I used a sharp utility knife to cut a long slit in the sheathing on the Romex, exposing the conductors. If you cut the side that has the writing on it, the paper wrapping will be a lot easier to remove. It is important to cut the sheathing off at the very back of the box. Sometimes when there are multiple wires it helps to write which one is which on the nearest stud. The easiest box to make up is a receptacle at the end of a circuit. You just strip the sheathing and paper away and leave the conductors and ground wire neatly folded near the front of the box, as the photo below shows. The simplest scenario is a receptacle that comes at the end of a circuit. The next simplest is a switch at the end of the line. This is done just like the receptacle except you need to wrap black electrical tape over the white conductor to show that it is “hot.” I like to use some leftover Romex sheathing to mark that the outlet is a switch. The remainder of the boxes will have more than one wire. It is easiest to start with the ground wires. If there are only two ground wires I twist them together six or seven times. Then I slide a crimp ring over them and use a pair of crimpers to pinch them tightly together, as the photo below shows. Next, I trim off any unnecessary ground wires (leave one remaining for each switch/receptacle in the box). The ground wires are twisted together and secured with a crimp ring. White conductors come next. If you are wiring a switch, make sure that none of them need to be taped to mark them as “hot.” This is usually due to power going to a light before the switch that controls it. If you mark a white conductor at one end, you must also mark it at the other end, at the box where the wire terminates. If you find yourself trying to connect a black conductor to a white conductor without an electrical device in between you will know right away you are doing something wrong. A pigtail turns multiple conductors into a single conductor. The black and red conductors are the most difficult, and this is where it becomes very important to have written down which wires are which. Receptacles require one black conductor, while switches require two. Just as with the white conductors, if you have only two black conductors, you can attach both of them to a single receptacle. For switches, one of the black conductors will need to be incoming power, and the other one will need to be going to the load. When there are multiple switches, you will need to use a pigtail. This time, instead of using a pigtail to turn multiple conductors into a single conductor, you will use the pigtail to turn a single wire coming from power into multiple wires that can each power a different switch. You may have power entering the box pigtailed to multiple switches, but you will also need to add to the pigtail other black conductors that will bring the power out of the box and into the next one. It is really important that you pay attention to the packaging for the wire nuts you are using for your pigtails to ensure that it is the right size for the number of wires in the pigtail. Tan ones, for instance, can be used for between two and five 14-gauge conductors. Wiring the panel For some reason, I take immense pleasure in stripping wires and making them look good, so making up the main panel was a very enjoyable task. I spent a great deal of time making it look as clean as I could make it. At the end of the day, it really doesn’t matter as the number of people that will ever remove the “dead front” and look inside the panel is very limited. But building a house is much more rewarding if you take pride in the small things. As I explained earlier, it is important to know the proper size circuit breaker for each individual circuit. Each circuit is built to power a “load,”whether it be a water heater or a refrigerator or a light. The proper size circuit breaker will know when the current increases above the planned maximum current for the load you have planned on the circuit and cut power. The NEC requires that receptacles in garages, kitchens, bathrooms, outdoors, and laundry areas are protected by a special type of device called a ground fault circuit interrupter, or GFCI. This type of breaker will not only trip when the current rises above the maximum for the load, but also measures the current as it returns to the main panel to make sure that no current has “leaked” out of the system. For example, let’s say someone is in the kitchen and doesn’t notice that the “hot” wire on the toaster cord has a puncture in it and is lying in a small puddle of water. When someone touches the water, they will be electrocuted. The current in the circuit won’t change significantly enough to trip the regular circuit breaker — it’s still powering a load. Unfortunately, that load would be a human being. The GFCI will trip in this case, however, because it senses that the power it is sending to the hot conductor is not returning to the main panel on the white neutral conductor. Alternatively, instead of using a GFCI breaker, you can use a regular circuit breaker with a GFCI receptacle. This is what I will be doing as it is much more cost-effective, yet just as safe. You can connect multiple regular outlets downstream of a GFCI outlet and they will all have GFCI protection — provided it is wired correctly. The last type of breaker is an arc fault circuit interrupter, or AFCI. These are required on almost all circuits that power multiple devices inside the house, other than bathrooms. If you have ever seen a spark plug work, you have seen an arc. Sometimes wires are just a little loose, so electricity can arc between them. In this case, the load is still powered, so a regular breaker doesn’t detect anything amiss. The loss of power is so low that the GFCI breaker doesn’t detect it, and yet the spark is powerful enough to start a fire in the same way that the spark plugs in your car ignite the gasoline in your engine. The AFCI has the ability to detect these arcs and will trip, alerting the homeowner to a potential problem in the wiring. I used a special AFCI breaker that is designed to connect not only to the main hot bus but also the neutral bus bar in the main panel. Again, the breakers work by monitoring the power as it returns to the panel and comparing it to the power that is leaving the panel. With some exceptions, white neutrals and the bare grounds go to the neutral bar. Black and red connectors are connected to the breakers. Once the proper breakers are installed into the panel, it is just a simple process of stripping the wires and connecting them. The ground wires always go in any location on the neutral bar unless you are wiring a subpanel, in which case there must be a separate bar for the grounds that connects to a single ground wire that is wired directly to the main panel neutral bus bar. White conductors also are connected to the neutral bar, unless they will be connected to a GFCI or AFCI breaker. The exception is when you have a 240-volt only circuit, in which case both the black and white conductors are hot and must be connected to the breaker. In this case, the white wire must be taped black to alert anyone operating on the panel that it is being used as a hot wire. The black and red conductors are always connected to the breakers. Other blogs by Matt Bath: An Introduction Foundation Formwork Designing and Installing a Septic System Pouring the Slab Framing the First Floor Framing the Second Floor Framing the Roof Shingling the Roof Wall Sheathing Installing Drains and Vents Plumbing Rough-In Completing the Dry-In
Nonong Araneta re-elected as PFF president Typhoon Kammuri accelerates, gains strength en route to PH ‘Not about numbers’: Slaughter looking to help Ginebra in any way he can Read Next The addition of the teams, which was officially announced on Tuesday in a press conference Tuesday at Shangri-La Hotel at Bonifacio Global City, expands the league’s reach in Asia.“We’ll be able to bring more exciting games for the fans. You’ll be able to see other stars in the region,” Ilagan told INQUIRER.net. “You’re not just confined in the Philippines then you get to appreciate other countries’ basketball culture as well.”FEATURED STORIESSPORTSWATCH: Drones light up sky in final leg of SEA Games torch runSPORTSSEA Games: Philippines picks up 1st win in men’s water poloSPORTSMalditas save PH from shutoutIlagan believes it will be a “very competitive” season.“I think most if not all of our games will be down the wire this year. All the teams we have this year are very competitive. The addition of CLS Knights from Indonesia, Mono Vampire from Thailand, they are very established teams,” he said. “Plus, you add that team from China and the group from Taiwan who equally love basketball as we do.” Brace for potentially devastating typhoon approaching PH – NDRRMC Kammuri turning to super typhoon less likely but possible — Pagasa The ninth season opens on Nov. 17. Alab Pilipinas begins its campaign on Nov. 19 against the Eastern Long Lions at Mall of Asia Arena.The Philippines, bannered by reigning local MVP Bobby Ray Parks Jr. and import Ivan Johnson, will be tested right away against Hong Kong, which will be led by Fil-German Christian Standhardinger and Thai-American Tyler Lamb.“It will absolutely be a tough game. They have a loaded team over there with Christian but we’ll do our part and be ready for our opening game,” said new Alab head coach Jimmy Alapag. ADVERTISEMENT LOOK: Loisa Andalio, Ronnie Alonte unwind in Amanpulo for 3rd anniversary Nine ABL teams for the 2017-2018 season. Photo from ASEAN Basketball LeagueA league record nine teams will see action in the new Asean Basketball League season which unfolds next month.Defending champion Hong Kong is expected to have its hands full with the entry of the Formosa Dreamers of Taiwan, CLS Knights Surabaya of Indonesia, Nanhai Long-Lions of China and returning Mono Vampire of Thailand.ADVERTISEMENT Fire hits houses in Mandaluyong City Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. LATEST STORIES BSP sees higher prices in November, but expects stronger peso, low rice costs to put up fight Frontrow holds fun run to raise funds for young cancer patients MOST READ PH boxing team determined to deliver gold medals for PH PLAY LIST 05:25PH boxing team determined to deliver gold medals for PH01:18Sangley airport to be operational in 7 days – Tugade03:07PH billiards team upbeat about gold medal chances in SEA Games01:37Protesters burn down Iran consulate in Najaf01:47Panelo casts doubts on Robredo’s drug war ‘discoveries’01:29Police teams find crossbows, bows in HK university01:35Panelo suggests discounted SEA Games tickets for students02:49Robredo: True leaders perform well despite having ‘uninspiring’ boss02:42PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games View comments
SEA Games hosting troubles anger Duterte For what it’s worth, Eya Laure delivered somewhat of a redemption game after she avenged her previous championship losses against NU in several finals in the high school level.Laure put up a game-high 20 points but it was role players Dimdim Pacres and Caitlyn Viray, who finished off the Lady Bulldogs.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSPrivate companies step in to help SEA Games hostingSPORTSUrgent reply from Philippine football chiefSPORTSPalace wants Cayetano’s PHISGOC Foundation probed over corruption chargesPacres twisted her attack to evade NU’s block to put UST in match point, 24-15, and although the Lady Bulldogs were able to score two more, Viray had enough and converted on a crosscourt kill to end the affair.UST head coach Kung Fu Reyes said his team’s two straight wins were a big morale booster for them after they lost Season 80 Rookie of the Year Milena Alessandrini to injury four games into the season. P2.5 B shabu seized in Makati sting, Chinese national nabbed Private companies step in to help SEA Games hosting MOST READ Chief Justice Peralta on upcoming UAAP game: UP has no match against UST PLAY LIST 01:00Chief Justice Peralta on upcoming UAAP game: UP has no match against UST00:50Trending Articles00:50Trending Articles02:42PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games01:44Philippines marks anniversary of massacre with calls for justice01:19Fire erupts in Barangay Tatalon in Quezon City01:07Trump talks impeachment while meeting NCAA athletes02:49World-class track facilities installed at NCC for SEA Games02:11Trump awards medals to Jon Voight, Alison Krauss 1 dead, 3 injured in Quezon road crash Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. Thai playmaker Chanathip Songkrasin raises profile in Japan Trump campaign, GOP groups attack Google’s new ad policy Sports Related Videospowered by AdSparcRead Next LATEST STORIES UST Golden Tigresses. Photo by Tristan Tamayo/INQUIRER.netMANILA, Philippines—University of Santo Tomas had its first taste of back-to-back victories after turning back National University in four sets, 26-24, 25-17, 23-25, 25-17, in the UAAP Sweason 81 women’s volleyball tournament Saturday at Filoil Flying V Centre in San Juan.The Golden Tigresses, who swept De La Salle in their previous game, 25-20, 25-22, 25-17, now tied the Lady Spikers for the No. 2 spot with identical 4-2 records.ADVERTISEMENT View comments Lacson backs proposal to elect president and vice president in tandem Hong Kong tunnel reopens, campus siege nears end “This is huge for the players’ morale and it’s a good thing we’re now able to recover,” said Reyes in Filipino. “The back-to-back wins are big because we’re doing this for Milena.”Cherry Rondina supported Laure’s offensive exploits with 16 points while Pacres had 12.Princess Robles and Ivy Lacsina had 14 points for the Lady Bulldogs, who dropped their third straight game for a 1-5 record.ADVERTISEMENT P2.5 B shabu seized in Makati sting, Chinese national nabbed
Friday June 22, 2007: Alice Springs Grand Finals Touch West web-site: www.touchwest.com.auNORTHERN TERRITORY (NT)Play: #4Gove Touch Wet Season Grand FinalsGove Touch began its season in March with nine men’s teams and seven women’s teams. Towards the end of the season both the men and women’s competitions were split into two divisions – Men’s A, Men’s B and Women’s A, Women’s B. The finals were held on Friday June 15, 2007, at the Gove Touch Fields.Men’s A: Kamasutra def Who U Men’s B: Delta Reef def GIS Women’s A: Leo’s Tigers def Big Mamma’sWomen’s B: Exterminators def Lookers Kelly Roos was awarded ‘Best and Fairest’ in the women’s category while Daniel Bromot was the ‘Best and Fairest’ of the men’s division. The Gove Touch Dry season Mixed Competition starts in August, 2007.Other events: In the A-grade mixed final, Nagle College and Roulette Cinema were locked at 5-5 at the end of regular time. The youngsters from Nagle (Bairnsdale) won in a drop off to secure the title. The Mixed B final was won by Sale’s local heroes, Top Draw Krills.The Touch Football Victoria web-site:www.victouch.com.auAUSTRALIAN CAPTIAL TERRITORY (ACT) PLAY: #6ACT Primary Schools ChampionshipsThis Friday June 22, 2007, the best ACT junior Touch Footballers will take the field for the ACT Primary Schools Championships. Teams representing the seven Canberra regions will compete in Boys and Girls Divisions. The tournament will be run by ACT Touch Game Development Trainees Adam Raptis and Tim Arnold who are undertaking internships with ACT Touch as part of the their studies at the University of Canberra.ACT Game Development Officer, Chris Tarlinton is expecting a strong showing from all teams as each region has undertaken trials to select the best players for the Championships. The ACT selectors will be casting their eyes over the talent with a view to selecting the ACT Under-12s representative sides for the National Primary Championships in Melbourne in October.The action gets underway from 9am at the Deakin Playing Fields.Other events:ACT Touch continues to work with the ACT Government and other ACT sporting bodies to plan and manage the drought issues currently threatening to close ovals in Canberra region.The ACT Touch Association web-site: www.acttouch.com.auThat’s it for this week’s edition of A Set of Six.Be sure to check out all the latest news in Touch Football this week by going to each State’s web-site for further information. Sale Association held its Winter Grand Finals. Thursday June 21, 2007: Darwin Touch Mixed Grand Finals The Touch Football Northern Territory web-site: www.touchnt.com.au VICTORIA (VIC)Play: #5Victorian Junior Teams primed for Queensland Junior State CupThe Victorian Under-12, 15, and 18 representative teams are putting in final preparations for the Queensland Junior State Cup tournament on the Sunshine Coast from July 5 – 8, 2007.The Victorian teams that are travelling north for the tournament are looking forward to broadening their exposure to the game of Touch Football. It’s the start of a new three- year program aimed at developing and strengthening the skills and talent of junior Touch players based in Victoria as well as exposing them to a new level of competition. The five teams will be managed by TFA Victoria Game Development officer Carly Goodrich, and a panel of experienced coaches.These coaches include Miles Davine, Mick Carter, Leah Percy, Hamish McLean and John Katal.It will also be the first ever appearance of Victoria in the under-12 age group in any Touch Football competition in Australia – a positive milestone in the development of Touch in Victoria. Other events: Game Development Officer Glen Richardson is currently visiting Weipa presenting Referee and Coaching Courses Friday June 22, 2007: Darwin Touch Men’s and Women’s Grand Finals Touch Football Australia brings you this rapid fire “Set of Six” news ‘plays’ from around the Country. TFA’s Media Scholarship Holder Henry Holland and TFA’s National Media Coordinator Karley Banks will bring you up to date every week with a selection of six ‘plays’ on the latest news, views, and events nationally.Welcome to Touch Football Australia’s A Set of Six – volume 7. QUEENSLAND (QLD) Play: #1 Queensland Touch and Sporting Wheelies WorkshopsOn Tuesday June 19, 2007, Queensland Touch took part in the first of two ‘No Limits Sports Expos’. The workshops are run conjunction with Lifestream and the Sporting Wheelies – organisations that work with disabled children in sport. The aim of the expos is to assess students from special education units and schools for suitability to participate in mainstream sport. Skills are tested through drills such as catching, passing and scoring. The participants’ motor skills are monitored, as is their ability to learn the rules of the game. Tuesday’s expo was held for 12 schools and units from the Sunshine Coast. 90 children were tested with approximately 80% judged as suitable for mainstream sport. On Thursday June 21, 2007, the second expo will be held for seven schools and units in the Logan and Beenleigh regions. 75 kids are expected to participate. Other events: Touch Football Queensland web-site: www.qldtouch.com.auSOUTH AUSTRALIA (SA) Play: #2 Botanics Touch Club Winter Competition The Botanics Touch Club winter competition will be played at Campbelltown Memorial Oval on the corner of Darley and Lower N.E. Roads, Campbelltown, commencing June 18, 2007.The competition format will be 2 x 25min games per team per week over the course of six weeks with all finals to be conducted on the seventh week.The competition dates are as follows:June 18, 25 July 2, 9, 16, 23 Finals July 30.Games will be played at 6.30pm, 7pm, 7.30pm, 8pm and 8.30pm if required.Other events:During the SAPSASA championships over 80 children were invited to the Under-12 State Trials to run on June 23 – 24, 2007, at the Citytouch Grounds in Eastwood. Announcement of the coaches will occur this week.Touch Football South Australia web-site: www.touchsa.com.auWESTERN AUSTRALIA (WA) Play: # 3Training camp for WA Under-18 PlayersOn the weekend 23 – 24 June, 2007, the first of two training camps will take place for all junior Metropolitan Touch Football players interested in taking part in the Under-18 National Championships, in Coffs Harbour, New South Wales, from 17 – 20 September, 2007.The camp is part of an open selection process and will be conducted at the Northern Districts Touch Association in Doubleview, Perth. 30 – 40 players are expected at the camp, which will be supervised by Toby Hohapata (WA Under-18 Boys’ Coach), Russell Moeahu (WA Under-18 Boys’ Manager), Shelley Matcham (WA Under-18 Girls’ Coach and current Australian Women’s Open representative), Nelly Hokianga (WA Under-18 Girls’ Assistant Coach) and Connie Jackaman (WA Under-18 Girls’ Manager).The players will be educated on fitness, nutrition, and recovery, as well as participating in general ball skill drills and game play. Last year WA wasn’t able to field teams in the Under-18 National Championships. This year, a boys and girls team will contest the championships and is expected to make their presence felt. Sharron Wong, Jenaya Quan and Blane Edwards are all National Youth Squad members and will lead the sides strongly. The training camp will be the first opportunity for players from the south to stake their claim to represent their State. On the weekend of June 2 – 3, 2007, players from the Northwest region got the opportunity to impress at a junior development camp in Broome. The second and final Metropolitan camp will be held in July and will include invited players from the Northwest region.Other events: WA State teams continue to train for the upcoming Barbarians Cup on 13 – 14 July, 2007. Sunday June 24, 2007: 74 teams to compete in the last leg of the Delfin TRI-Series, the Junior Sharks Cup
Real Madrid coach Zidane: When we lose I’m out and in when we winby Carlos Volcanoa month agoSend to a friendShare the loveReal Madrid coach Zinedine Zidane says he can handle the sack talk swirling around him.Pressure has eased on the Frenchman after victory at Sevilla on Sunday.And ahead of their meeting with Osasuna, Zidane shrugged: “When we lose I am out and in when we win.”Beyond the game we did, what stands out is that we played as a team from minute one to the end. “To win the game tomorrow, we need the same. There is no easy game. We have to continue along this line.”He added: “Tomorrow there is a game and what happens happens. We have to make a great game tomorrow, with the same intensity and the same desire. It is what interests me.” TagsTransfersAbout the authorCarlos VolcanoShare the loveHave your say