Lilly COVID-19 treatment could be authorized for use as soon as September: Chief scientist

first_imgCoronavirus vaccines being developed and tested at unprecedented speed are not likely to be ready before the end of the year at the earliest.Earlier this month, Lilly announced it had initiated patient testing for two separate antibody treatments. One currently designated LY-CoV555 is being developed in partnership with Canadian biotech AbCellera. The other, JS016, it being developed with Chinese drugmaker Shanghai Junshi Biosciences.Both work by blocking part of the virus’ so-called spike protein that it uses to enter human cells and replicate.Lilly’s third antibody treatment candidate acts on a different part of the virus and will most likely be tested in combination with one or both of the others, Skovronsky said.The drugmaker, however, said it has a strong preference to develop a treatment that can work well in COVID-19 patients as a stand alone, as manufacturing these type of drugs, which are typically administered by infusion, is a complex process and capacity is limited.”It’s good to have two antibodies. The downside is that manufacturing is precious. We have limited manufacturing capacity. If two antibodies are required, half as many people will get treated,” Skovronsky said. “So our goal is to see if we can do one antibody at as low a dose as possible.”Lilly will have the capacity to make hundreds of thousands of doses by the end of the year if it can treat COVID-19 patients using a single antibody drug rather than with a combination, he said.Preventing the disease with these type of drugs presents a different manufacturing challenge entirely.”Global capacity for antibodies is just not high enough that we could ever think about adequate doses” for “billions of people in the prophylactic setting,” Skovronsky said.The better solution is to widely inoculate people with COVID-19 vaccines when available, and reserve antibody treatments for people who have the disease or were recently exposed to it.They could also help vulnerable populations where vaccines are less effective, such as nursing home patients, he said.Lilly hopes to conduct a COVID-19 prevention clinical trial in nursing home patients later this year, he added.The Indianapolis-based drugmaker plans to produce the medicines in plants in Kinsale, Ireland and New Jersey, and is willing to use its capacity to help manufacture another company’s successful treatment, should Lilly’s fail in clinical trails.Lilly is continuing to screen for antibodies through its partnership with AbCellera, which is working with the US National Institutes of Health to identify promising compounds, Skovronsky said.  Eli Lilly and Co could have a drug specifically designed to treat COVID-19 authorized for use as early as September if all goes well with either of two antibody therapies it is testing, its chief scientist told Reuters on Wednesday.Lilly is also doing preclinical studies of a third antibody treatment for the illness caused by the new coronavirus that could enter human clinical trials in the coming weeks, Chief Scientific Officer Daniel Skovronsky said in an interview.Lilly has already launched human trials with two of the experimental therapies. Topics :center_img The drugs belong to a class of biotech medicines called monoclonal antibodies widely used to treat cancer, rheumatoid arthritis and many other conditions. A monoclonal antibody drug developed against COVID-19 is likely to be more effective than repurposed medicines currently being tested against the virus.Skovronsky said the therapies – which may also be used to prevent the disease – could beat a vaccine to widespread use as a COVID-19 treatment, if they prove effective.”For the treatment indication, particularly, this could go pretty fast,” he said in an interview. “If in August or September we’re seeing the people who got treated are not progressing to hospitalization, that would be powerful data and could lead to emergency use authorization.””So that puts you in the fall time: September, October, November is not unreasonable,” he said.last_img read more

Learn to Create Your Own 8-Bit Art in Adobe After Effects

first_imgDownload the project fileThis project file is free to use in any personal or commercial projects. By downloading, you agree not to redistribute this project file.Now, let’s walk through — step-by-step — creating the 8-bit look in After Effects.1. PosterizeFirst, create an Adjustment layer above all of the other layers in your composition. (This can be above motion graphics, animation, footage, etc.) Then, apply the Posterize effect to the Adjustment layer. The Posterize effect will limit the number of color tones on your image. For a retro game look, I prefer to set the Level between 5 and 15. (15 if you are creating a full-color look, and closer to 5 if you are creating a monotone look, like an original Game Boy screen.)2. CC Block LoadNow, to create the blocky-pixel look on our image, we need to apply the CC Block Load effect to the Adjustment layer. Make sure the Completion setting is set to 0. Then, set the Scans value to 3 and uncheck the Start Cleared option. You should now see a pixelized version of your image. The great thing about the CC Block Load effect is that it always creates perfectly square pixels, regardless of the aspect ratio of the composition.3. TintNext, you can apply the Tint effect to the Adjustment layer if you want to limit the color-palette to something more black and white. This is an option for stylistic choice. Set the Map White To option to a dull green tone to replicate the original Game Boy Screen.4. GridNow, we need to add some grid spacing between each pixel. This helps create the illusion of a low-resolution screen. Apply the Grid effect to the Adjustment layer. Set the Blending Mode in the options to Normal, and set the color to a dark grey. Next, set the Border value to 2. Finally, set the Anchor values to 0,0 and set the Corner values to 8,8. This should now leave you with a perfect grid around each “pixel block” on screen. (When CC Block Load is set to a Scan value of 3, each pixel block it creates is 8px by 8px.)5. Posterize TimeFinally, I recommend limiting the frame rate to better emulate the appearance of a retro video game. An easy way to do this is with the Posterize Time effect. Apply Posterize Time to the Adjustment layer, then I recommend setting the frame rate between 6 and 15. This will add a little bit of stutter to the movement onscreen. (Using Posterize Time is optional, depending on the look you are going for, and may not be necessary for more modern 8-bit animations.)6. Video FootageWhen applying the 8-bit look to video footage, you may encounter a lot of pixel flickering. You can reduce this using blur effects. Apply the 8-bit look to an Adjustment layer above your footage. Now apply a Gaussian Blur to your video footage. I recommenced a blurriness value between 4 and 8. This will help reduce the flickering, but it will also reduce some contrast. Alternatively, you can substitute Smart Blur in place of Gaussian Blur. Smart Blur will preserve more contrast, but it will take a lot longer to render. I recommend setting the Smart Blur radius to a value between 3 and 6.7. Alpha Channel FootageIf you are going to apply the 8-bit game look to footage with an alpha channel, I recommend applying the effects (or preset) directly on the footage. Then, in order to not have the pixel grid appear on the alpha channel part of the footage, navigate to the Blending Mode option for the Grid effect. Set it to one of the following four blending modes: Darken, Lighten, Difference, or Exclusion. The blending mode you choose will depend on the final look you want. I recommend viewing each one, then selecting the one that looks best.8. Installing the After Effects 8-Bit Game PresetInstalling the 8-Bit Game preset is easy — on both Mac and PC. Just navigate to your Documents folder, then Adobe, and then the After Effects CC folder, for your version of After Effects (the preset works with After Effects CC 2018and up). In your After Effects CC version folder, you will see a User Presets folder. Just drag-and-drop the 8-Bit Game preset into that folder. Now when you use After Effects, just search for “8-Bit Game” in the Effects & Presets panel.Interested in the tracks we used to make this video?“Never Gonna Let You Go” by Luciano Music Co.“Anyone but Me” by Luciano Music Co.“Digital Groove Connection” by Mattijs Muller“Wonder Man” by LATG Music“Positive Day On” by Make MusicLooking for more post-production video tutorials? Check these out.How to Alter the Color of Your Video Using Lumetri CurvesVideo Tutorial: How to Use Premiere’s New Freeform View6 New Features in Premiere Pro’s Essential Graphics PanelTutorial: Getting Started with Content-Aware Fill in After EffectsHow to Create the Double Exposure Effect in Four Manageable Steps In this video tutorial, learn how to create an 8-bit video game look in Adobe After Effects for motion graphics or footage — with free preset and project file!With the Nintendo Game Boy turning 30 years old this year, there is no better time to create some 8-bit video game-inspired looks, right in After Effects. In this tutorial, I’ll walk you through how to create your own 8-bit look that you can apply to motion graphics or footage. This technique offers you a lot of easy customization, as well. (Be sure to download the project file that includes the free 8-Bit Game preset and some retro screen templates!)Ready to create some 8-bit video game art? Let’s get started!last_img read more

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