Atmospheric scientists at the Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) and Nanjing University have produced the first “bottom-up” estimates of China’s carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, for 2005 to 2009, and the first statistically rigorous estimates of the uncertainties surrounding China’s CO2 emissions.The independent estimates, rooted in part in measurements of pollutants both at the sources and in the air, may be the most accurate totals to date. The resulting figures offer an unbiased basis on which China might measure its progress toward its well-publicized CO2 control goals.The findings were published July 4 in the journal Atmospheric Environment.“China’s emissions of CO2 are of central concern in efforts to combat global climate change,” says lead author Yu Zhao, a former postdoctoral researcher at SEAS who is now a professor at the Nanjing University School of the Environment in China. “But despite all of the attention to China’s CO2 emissions, they’re less well-quantified than most people realize.”Existing estimates for these emissions are calculated “top-down,” based on annual energy statistics that are released by the Chinese government. The nation has only once officially estimated its CO2 emissions, based on national energy statistics from 1994, although it is now constructing a data system to produce periodic national greenhouse gas inventories. Non-Chinese organizations, such as the U.S. Department of Energy and the Netherlands Environment Agency, produce widely cited CO2 estimates for China (among other countries), but these are also based on the national energy data.A study published last month by a China–U.K.–U.S. team in Nature Climate Change spotlighted a large disparity in estimates of Chinese CO2 emissions when the numbers were based on national energy statistics versus summed provincial data. To illustrate the contrast, those researchers had applied a standardized U.N. protocol for estimating the emissions of any developing country by sector.The new Harvard–Nanjing study goes deeper, however, constructing a “bottom-up” emission inventory that is specific to China’s energy and technology mix. It combines the results of Chinese field studies of CO2 emissions from diverse combustion processes with a plant-by-plant data set for power generation, independent research on transportation and rural biomass use, and provincial-level energy statistics for the remaining sectors.The Harvard-Nanjing team believes provincial energy data to be more accurate than national statistics because the provincial data have been empirically tested in peer-reviewed atmospheric studies that compare the expected emissions of conventional air pollutants to actual instrumental observations by satellites and ground stations. Provincial statistics also take into account the large quantities of coal produced by small, illegal mines.“There are several different ways to estimate emissions of greenhouse gases or air pollutants, from those designed to support policy processes to those made by scientists researching atmospheric transport and chemistry,” explains co-author Chris Nielsen, executive director of the Harvard China Project, which is based at SEAS.The former methods suit the needs of policy, attributing emissions to identifiable sources for actionable controls, but the latter are often more environmentally accurate, according to Nielsen.“The methods used by atmospheric scientists can be more complete, incorporating new research on dispersed sources that are poorly represented in official statistics or weakly targeted by policy — such as the burning of crop wastes in fields or biofuels in poor, rural homes,” Nielsen explains. “The data are also more detailed in spatial terms. This allows a comparison of emission estimates to the pollution levels measured at the surface, or from space, testing the underlying energy data in the process.”The new study capitalizes on prior tests and a bottom-up data framework that has been demonstrated for conventional air pollutants to produce a more thorough estimate of China’s CO2 emissions.The new study also quantifies the uncertainty of the emission totals, applying formal statistical methods. For instance, the team found that the 95 percent confidence interval for the 2005 CO2 estimate lies between −9 percent and +11 percent of the central value. This relatively wide range means that measuring China’s achievement of its national CO2 control targets may be more difficult — and potentially more contentious—than generally recognized by Chinese and international policy actors.“The levels of uncertainty indicate that Chinese domestic frameworks to set control targets for CO2 emissions at scales larger than individual factories, such as provinces or sectors, may reflect unwarranted confidence in the measurability and verifiability of the impacts of policy interventions,” says senior author Michael B. McElroy, Gilbert Butler Professor of Environmental Studies at SEAS.“Such levels of uncertainty aren’t unique to China among developing and emerging economies,” Zhao cautions. “All have less-developed data systems than those that have been built up over decades to serve energy markets and environmental regulation in the United States and other industrialized countries. It’s critical that international agreements to limit CO2 emissions recognize these differences in national data conditions.”Beyond the policy implications, the availability of accurate estimates of China’s CO2 emissions (and the related uncertainties in the data) can improve scientists’ understanding of the global carbon cycle and the physical processes driving global climate change.The work was funded by the National Science Foundation.
Coronavirus vaccines being developed and tested at unprecedented speed are not likely to be ready before the end of the year at the earliest.Earlier this month, Lilly announced it had initiated patient testing for two separate antibody treatments. One currently designated LY-CoV555 is being developed in partnership with Canadian biotech AbCellera. The other, JS016, it being developed with Chinese drugmaker Shanghai Junshi Biosciences.Both work by blocking part of the virus’ so-called spike protein that it uses to enter human cells and replicate.Lilly’s third antibody treatment candidate acts on a different part of the virus and will most likely be tested in combination with one or both of the others, Skovronsky said.The drugmaker, however, said it has a strong preference to develop a treatment that can work well in COVID-19 patients as a stand alone, as manufacturing these type of drugs, which are typically administered by infusion, is a complex process and capacity is limited.”It’s good to have two antibodies. The downside is that manufacturing is precious. We have limited manufacturing capacity. If two antibodies are required, half as many people will get treated,” Skovronsky said. “So our goal is to see if we can do one antibody at as low a dose as possible.”Lilly will have the capacity to make hundreds of thousands of doses by the end of the year if it can treat COVID-19 patients using a single antibody drug rather than with a combination, he said.Preventing the disease with these type of drugs presents a different manufacturing challenge entirely.”Global capacity for antibodies is just not high enough that we could ever think about adequate doses” for “billions of people in the prophylactic setting,” Skovronsky said.The better solution is to widely inoculate people with COVID-19 vaccines when available, and reserve antibody treatments for people who have the disease or were recently exposed to it.They could also help vulnerable populations where vaccines are less effective, such as nursing home patients, he said.Lilly hopes to conduct a COVID-19 prevention clinical trial in nursing home patients later this year, he added.The Indianapolis-based drugmaker plans to produce the medicines in plants in Kinsale, Ireland and New Jersey, and is willing to use its capacity to help manufacture another company’s successful treatment, should Lilly’s fail in clinical trails.Lilly is continuing to screen for antibodies through its partnership with AbCellera, which is working with the US National Institutes of Health to identify promising compounds, Skovronsky said. Eli Lilly and Co could have a drug specifically designed to treat COVID-19 authorized for use as early as September if all goes well with either of two antibody therapies it is testing, its chief scientist told Reuters on Wednesday.Lilly is also doing preclinical studies of a third antibody treatment for the illness caused by the new coronavirus that could enter human clinical trials in the coming weeks, Chief Scientific Officer Daniel Skovronsky said in an interview.Lilly has already launched human trials with two of the experimental therapies. Topics : The drugs belong to a class of biotech medicines called monoclonal antibodies widely used to treat cancer, rheumatoid arthritis and many other conditions. A monoclonal antibody drug developed against COVID-19 is likely to be more effective than repurposed medicines currently being tested against the virus.Skovronsky said the therapies – which may also be used to prevent the disease – could beat a vaccine to widespread use as a COVID-19 treatment, if they prove effective.”For the treatment indication, particularly, this could go pretty fast,” he said in an interview. “If in August or September we’re seeing the people who got treated are not progressing to hospitalization, that would be powerful data and could lead to emergency use authorization.””So that puts you in the fall time: September, October, November is not unreasonable,” he said.
The Clifton Suspension Bridge in Bristol, where Brunel Pension Partnership is basedRedington helped the £29bn pension pool with the sub-fund searches and Inalytics provided detailed manager analysis.Brunel has previously said it would be using an ACS model – a UK tax efficient fund structure – for around £7.5bn of actively managed equities, and appointed FundRock as the operator of the ACS in June.Brunel is a collaboration between 10 Local Government Pension Scheme (LGPS) funds based attached to local authorities in the south and south-west of England.The actively managed UK equities sub-fund is the pool’s latest investment offering after it appointed Legal & General Investment Management as a passive equity fund manager in April. It has allocated almost £1bn to a smart beta fund run by the same manager. Brunel has also made commitments to long-lease property funds run by M&G and Aberdeen Standard Investments.A £1.3bn emerging markets equities fund is in the pipeline and a low volatility equity allocation could also be made.ACCESS pool prepping £650m mandate LGPS ACCESS, another of the new UK public pension asset pools, is gearing up to make a £650m active global equity allocation.Link Fund Solutions, the pool’s operator, was working with Russell Investment Management to identify a manager with a value bias for one or more sub-funds, ACCESS announced today.“This appointment is part of a series of sub-funds to be launched during 2019 to facilitate a significant move of assets into the pool structure to meet the government’s objective of delivering reduced costs while maintaining overall investment performance,” it said.ACCESS is a consortium of 11 LGPS funds with a total of £45bn in assets under management. Unlike Brunel, it has not created its own fund structure but has appointed Link to house the assets and Russell to aid with manager selection.Its first global equity sub-fund was launched in the autumn, with Baillie Gifford the first manager to be appointed, according to a spokesman. IPE Quest inquiryA UK pension fund is seeking input for a potential actively managed large-cap value equities mandate via IPE Quest’s Discovery service.According to DS-2499 , the pension fund – which is using the procurement service for the first time – could invest £200m. It was interested in managers with a track record of at least five years, for either a pooled fund or a segregated mandate.The IPE news team is unable to answer any further questions about IPE Quest, Discovery, or Innovation tender notices to protect the interests of clients conducting the search. To obtain information directly from IPE Quest, please contact Jayna Vishram on +44 (0) 20 3465 9330 or email [email protected] Brunel Pension Partnership has appointed three asset managers to run a £1.6bn (€1.8bn) active UK equities fund.Aberdeen Standard Investments, Baillie Gifford, and Invesco have been hired to run the sub-fund, which forms the first portfolio within Brunel’s newly launched authorised contractual scheme (ACS).According to Mark Mansley, chief investment officer at Brunel, the managers offered the best “blend of complementary skills and methods” for the pool’s clients.“We have carefully reviewed the correlation between the managers to ensure they provide genuine diversification, and believe this combination is particularly efficient,” said Mansley. “We expect the portfolio to meet our 2% outperformance target with modest overall risk and low costs,” he added. “The managers’ approaches to stewardship and responsible investment were also key.”
Photo by Dillon Matthew | Daily TrojanThe No. 15 women’s volleyball team (12-3, 4-0 Pac-12) heads to Arizona to face the Arizona Wildcats (7-7, 1-4 Pac-12) on Friday and the Arizona State Sun Devils (10-6, 0-4 Pac-12) on Saturday.The Women of Troy are coming off a sweep against No. 9 Washington on Sunday and a four-set win over Washington State on Saturday. The team is currently undefeated in conference play, jumping out to a hotter start than originally predicted. The team’s strong start to conference play has allowed it to jump up in the polls.USC will rely on back-to-back Pac-12 Offensive Player of the Week and ESPNW National Player of the Week senior opposite hitter Brittany Abercrombie to power the offense. Abercrombie has accumulated 13 kills each in wins against then-ranked No. 6 Washington and Washington State, providing a stable offensive flow for the team.The Trojans have also received considerable offensive support from sophomore outside hitter Khalia Lanier, senior opposite hitter Niki Withers and junior outside hitter Alyse Ford. Lanier is averaging a team-leading 4.32 kills per set on the season while Ford and Withers are averaging 2.60 kills per set and 2.35 kills per set, respectively. Setters Reni Meyer-Whalley and Cindy Marina will also look to make strong constributions in setting up opportunities for the rest of the team.The Women of Troy will have to attempt to stop Arizona’s offense, driven by junior outside hitter Kendra Dahlke. Dahlke has accumulated 131 kills for the Wildcats and is averaging 3.12 kills per set this season. She is joined on the offensive front by freshman outside hitter Paige Whipple, sporting 2.50 kills per set, and junior outside hitter Tyler Spriggs, with a 2.86 kps, to spearhead the Wildcats’ offense. The Trojans’ defense will have its hands full in the desert against an offensively driven Wildcat squad.After a quick one-day turnaround, the Women of Troy head out to Tempe to face the Sun Devils.The team is led by senior middle blocker Oluoma Okaro, who has put up crazy numbers for Arizona State. Okaro has a total of 258 kills and averages 4.61 kps. Against Washington in late September, Okaro racked up 30 kills in a five-set loss. She is joined by outside hitters Ivana Jeremic and Griere Hughes to form a strong offensive line. The Sun Devils will seek to bounce back against the Trojans after enduring four consecutive losses against Pac-12 opponents.If USC can pick up two solid wins on the road, the Trojans will move to 6-0 on the season and solidify their spot alongside Stanford in the Pac-12, who they’ll host — along with Cal — next weekend.The Women of Troy face the Wildcats at 6 p.m. tonight and the Sun Devils at 6 p.m. on Saturday.
MOST READ View comments ‘Stop romanticizing Pinoy resilience’ P16.5-M worth of aid provided for Taal Volcano eruption victims — NDRRMC Philadelphia — a melting pot of humanity for more than 300 years — has a basketball team probably as diverse as the city itself. The 76ers, 19-1 in their last 20 games and suddenly looking very much like an NBA Finals contender, will try to close out the Miami Heat and clinch their Eastern Conference opening series when they play host to Game 5 on Tuesday night.About a dozen languages and dialects can be spoken in the 76ers locker room at any time, but clearly, winning is a universal language.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSGinebra beats Meralco again to capture PBA Governors’ Cup titleSPORTSAfter winning title, time for LA Tenorio to give back to Batangas folkSPORTSTim Cone, Ginebra set their sights on elusive All-Filipino crown“It’s all basketball, but the true side of how people coach, speak, say, play the game is different,” 76ers coach Brett Brown said. “And that collection now that I have with everybody is like is a melting pot of all peoples experiences. That equals a team. I mean, I love it. I love the geo-political conversations. I love that diversity on the court, off the court. I enjoy it.”There might be no coach better-suited for this particular gig that Brown, too. Scientists seek rare species survivors amid Australia flames The poise shows, with the rookie shining in his first playoffs.Embiid, also in his first playoffs and with a mask protecting his surgically repaired face, has handled playing injured with ease. Belinelli has been a steadying force since he got to Philadelphia two months ago. Saric has been doing things in these playoffs that can draw comparisons to what that countrymen Drazen Petrovic and Peja Stojakovic did before him. Ilyasova has been a key player for Philadelphia since getting rescued from Atlanta in February.They all think differently, many learned the game differently, and the backgrounds are wildly different.But it works.A record 62 players from 33 countries were on playoff rosters across the NBA this season, and no one had more of them than Philadelphia — the 76ers have seven international guys with them for the postseason, matching Utah for the league lead.“My English isn’t that good, Dario’s isn’t that good, but we try to be a great group,” Belinelli said. “And we are. We go to dinner all together, we spend a lot of time together in the locker room after practice. It’s just part of the work, I think. Having all these guys from different parts of the world, it’s a good thing.”Brown, a coach in three Olympics, couldn’t agree more.“This global instinct and sort of global feeling that we have in Philadelphia interests me very much,” Brown said. “I embrace it. For me, it’s another layer of why I enjoy coaching this team.” Jo Koy draws ire for cutting through Cebu City traffic with ‘wang-wang’ Carpio hits red carpet treatment for China Coast Guard PLAY LIST 02:14Carpio hits red carpet treatment for China Coast Guard02:56NCRPO pledges to donate P3.5 million to victims of Taal eruption00:56Heavy rain brings some relief in Australia02:37Calm moments allow Taal folks some respite03:23Negosyo sa Tagaytay City, bagsak sa pag-aalboroto ng Bulkang Taal01:13Christian Standhardinger wins PBA Best Player award Volcano watch: Island fissures steaming, lake water receding Green group flags ‘overkill’ use of plastic banderitas in Manila Sto. Niño feast Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. He spent nearly two decades living overseas, spending most of that time coaching in Australia before getting hired by the San Antonio Spurs — another franchise that has found championship ingredients from all over the world — back in 2002. Brown went to Philadelphia in 2013, took loss after loss after loss for his first four seasons when The Process was playing itself out, and now is reaping the rewards.The 76ers are young. They’re brash. They’re fearless. And they’re legit.“A lot of the guys growing up overseas, we have that European style of play,” Simmons said. “It’s a lot different than the U.S. style.”Simmons is still a kid, in the NBA sense. He’s 21. But he’s already seen the world with a basketball in hand: He’s played all over Australia, represented his country in Lithuania at the FIBA World U17 Championships as a 15-year-old, ended up going to high school in Florida and spent his lone year of college at LSU.“I’ve seen a lot,” Simmons said. “I’ve played everywhere.”ADVERTISEMENT Lights inside SMX hall flicker as Duterte rants vs Ayala, Pangilinan anew Common goal Sports Related Videospowered by AdSparcRead Next In fight vs corruption, Duterte now points to Ayala, MVP companies as ‘big fish’ LATEST STORIES FILE – From left are file photos showing members of the Philadelphia 76ers basketball team. Philadelphia’s six leading scorers so far in the playoffs, in order, from left: Ben Simmons, Australia; Dario Saric, Croatia; Joel Embiid, Cameroon; JJ Redick, U.S.; Marci Belinelli, Italy and Ersan Ilyasova, Turkey. Philadelphia–a melting pot of humanity for more than 300 years—has a basketball team probably as diverse as the city itself. (AP Photo/File)MIAMI — Philadelphia’s six leading average scorers so far in the playoffs, in order are: Ben Simmons, Dario Saric, Joel Embiid, JJ Redick, Marco Belinelli and Ersan Ilyasova.Their homelands: Australia, Croatia, Cameroon, the United States, Italy and Turkey.ADVERTISEMENT Truck driver killed in Davao del Sur road accident